Anti Insulin Bodies Lab Test

Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies (GADA), Insulin Autoantibodies (IAA)
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Clinical Definition of Anti Insulin Bodies

Insulin is a hormone discharged by the pancreatic cells. The anti-insulin antibody test detects if your body has produced ample antibodies against insulin. It regulates the carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.

Insulin is essential for the cells of our body to metabolize glucose properly and function normally. The presence of GAD autoantibodies has been shown to be strong predictive marker for eventual onset of IDDM.

Glutamic acid decarboxylase is an enzyme that is found in high concentrations in the pancreas, it catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamic acid into g aminobutyrate and carbon dioxide via an irreversible reaction. Without sufficient insulin, cells starve and it would result in high blood sugar.

Auto- antibodies may develop in the body against the pancreatic cells, that produce it or against insulin itself. These autoantibodies reflect the destruction of the cells, the loss of the cell function and hence lack of insulin production, thus resulting in Type 1 diabetes. In contrast, type 2 diabetes primarily results from insulin resistance and does not involve autoimmune processes.

When do you expect results?

24 to 36 Hours

Why Get Tested?

This anti insulin bodies test diagnosis the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies in the human body. It detects the risk for developing type 1 diabetes mellitus;and asseses between type 1, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

It observes prognosis of the clinical progression of type 1 diabetes and analyzes any allergic response to insulinTo check if insulin no longer seems to control the diabetesTo confirm insulin resistance when there is a difficulty in controlling their glucose levels with the standard treatment to determine if hypoglycemia is caused by insulin overuse.

Reason to take Anti Insulin Bodies Test

Common symptoms associated are sudden weight loss, frequent urination, increased thirst and dehydration, slow healing of wounds and difficulty in maintaining glucose levels.

Preparations Needed for Anti Insulin Bodies Test

Preparatory instructions during specimen collection*:

  • Fasting Required.
  • Fasting samples have to be collected after a minimum 8-hour overnight fasting status.
  • Clear fluids like water is allowed during this period. Refrain from consumption of early morning beverages like tea, coffee and milk until specimen collection is completed.
  • In case of diabetics on oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents, consult your physician about continuing with these medications prior to specimen collection.

Sample Required?

Specimen type: Serum (Blood Sample)

Specimen collection procedure: Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.

Understanding results of Anti Insulin Bodies

Reference RangeInterpretation
> 18 U/mlPositive
12 - 18 U/mlEquivocal
< 12 U/mlNegative

Inference: Normally, there are no antibodies against insulin in the blood. However if the body does have IgG and IgM antibodies against insulin, the body will treat the insulin as foreign. This may make insulin less effective, or not effective at all. If the test shows high levels of IgE antibody against insulin, then the body has developed an allergic response to the medication.

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

References

  1. https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003375.htm
  2. https://www.ucsfbenioffchildrens.org/tests/003375.html
  3. https://labtestsonline.org/tests/diabetes-related-autoantibodies
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283543/