Apolipoprotein B is a major protein constituent of chylomicrons (apo B-48), LDL (apo B-100) and VLDL (apo B-100). Apo B-100 functions as a recognition signal for the cellular binding and internalization of LDL particles by the apoB/E receptor. Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind to lipids to form lipoproteins. Their synthesis in the liver is controlled by a host of factors, including dietary composition, hormones (insulin, glucagon, thyroxin, estrogens and androgens), alcohol intake and various drugs (statins, niacin, and fibric acids). They help to transport the lipids through the lymphatic and circulatory systems. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or “bad-cholesterol” is responsible for plaque formation, while High-density lipoprotein (HDL) or “good-cholesterol” is responsible for removing plaque-forming substances.
Apo B is a primary integral apoprotein, required for the formation of low-density lipoproteins complexes (LDL or "bad cholesterol") and triglycerides and is responsible for carrying cholesterol to tissues by acting as a ligand for LDL receptors in various cells throughout the body. High levels of ApoB can lead to plaques causing atherosclerosis & heart disease. It has been found that levels of ApoB are a better indicator of heart disease risk than total cholesterol or LDL.
24 to 36 Hours
People who generally undergo the apolipoprotein b test are suspected to be at a high risk of heart disease, atherosclerosis and/or hyperlipidemia. It could be utilizes to analyze the effectiveness of a lifestyle change and lipid treatments.
Common signs noticed are:
Heartburn and/or indigestion
Arm pain (more commonly the left arm, but may be either arm)
Upper back pain
General malaise (vague feeling of illness)
Shortness of breath
Pain, fullness and/or squeezing sensation of the chest
Jaw pain, toothache, headache
Nausea, vomiting and/or general epigastric (upper middle abdomen) discomfort
Preparatory instructions during specimen collection:Fasting Required.
Fasting samples have to be collected after a minimum 12-14 hour overnight fasting status.
Clear fluids like water is allowed during this period. Refrain from consumption of early morning beverages like tea, coffee and milk until specimen collection is completed.
In case of diabetics on oral or injectable hypoglycemic agents, consult your physician about continuing with these medications prior to specimen collection.
Specimen type:Serum (Blood Sample)
Specimen collection procedure:Venipuncture - Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm.
‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’
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