Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine] Lab Test

Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine]
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Clinical Definition of Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine]

Sodium is a mineral used in every cell of your body. It is especially important for the function of your nerves and muscles. It is also referred to as natrium or Na+.

It is an electrolyte that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium, chloride and bicarbonate (total CO2) to help maintain and regulate the amount of fluid (water and electrolyte) balance in the body, stimulate muscle contraction and maintain a stable acid-base balance in blood and tissue cells.

What is the Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine] Test?

The Sodium Serum test helps the doctor see how much sodium is present in your body. The test can use a sample of either urine or blood and is called the Urine sodium test and the serum sodium test respectively.

The mineral is one of the most important minerals for the body, as it is a necessity for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Too less or too much sodium can be harmful to your health and can cause conditions like high blood pressure for the patient.

When do you expect results?

24 to 36 Hours

Why Get Tested?

The test is usually carried out as part of a test to measure all of the minerals in the body, particularly if you are recovering from a health condition. The doctor may also prescribe the test in order to monitor your progress in getting better from electrolyte imbalances. Some common reasons for getting tested are:

  • To find the cause of symptoms from low or high levels of sodium
  • Check the progress of diseases of the kidneys or adrenal glands
  • As a routine medical exam, part of an electrolyte or metabolic panel
  • To help evaluate water and electrolyte imbalance and kidney function
  • To check if sodium concentration is within normal limits and to help evaluate electrolyte balance to monitor chronic or acute hypernatremia or hyponatremia
  • To check sodium imbalance or disorders associated with abnormal sodium levels
  • To monitor certain chronic conditions, like high or low blood pressure

Reason to take Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine] Test

If you have some of the symptoms mentioned below, your doctor might prescribe this test to get to know your condition better.

• Edema

• Confusion

• Weakness

• Turgor of the skin

• Swelling in the ankles, feet, and legs

• Severe dehydration

• Lethargy

• Seizures at times

Preparations Needed for Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine] Test

Preparatory instructions before the test *:

No Fasting Required.

No other special preparations required.

Sample Required?

Specimen type: Serum/Urine

(Blood Sample) Specimen collection procedure: Venipuncture

(Collection of blood from a vein, usually from the arm)

How do you understand this result?

If the sodium levels come up to be lower than normal, it may be the result of a condition called hyponatremia. The symptoms include fatigue, nausea, vomiting and headache among many others. The cause of this condition may be the consumption of medicines like diuretics or antidepressants or may be because of kidney disease, cirrhosis on the liver or even severe diarrhoea.

If the results point towards a level higher than the normal urine sodium level, the condition is called hypernatremia. The cause for this condition may be the consumption of too much salt, dehydration, excessive sweating or Cushing’s syndrome. The symptoms for the same include swelling in the hands and the feet, weakness and insomnia.

Understanding results of Sodium (Na+) [Serum/Urine]

Reference RangeInterpretation
Diabetes insipidus Hyperaldosteronism Cushing syndrome Congestive heart failure Nephrotic syndrome Acute adrenal crisis Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar coma Drug-induced hypothyroidism Hepatorenal syndrome HypopituitarismMale Female 0 - 7 days  7 - 31 days  1 - 6 months  6 months - 1 yr > 1 yr Urine Male Female

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’.

References

  1. https://labtestsonline.org/tests/sodium
  2. https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/sodiumbloodtest.html
  3. www.ndhealthfacts.org/wiki/Serum_Sodium
  4. https://www.ucsfhealth.org/tests/003481.html
  5. https://www.saintlukeskc.org/health-library/sodium-urine