Thyroid Autoantibodies (AtAb) Lab Test

Antithyroid antibodies, Thyroid microsomal antibody
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Clinical Definition

The thyroid is a small gland shaped like a butterfly-shaped lying flat against the windpipe in the throat. It produces two primary hormones – Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) that are essential to regulate the rate at which we use energy. The body uses the thyroid stimulating hormone to turn the thyroid hormone production to switch on and off and thereby maintains a stable amount of hormones in the bloodstream. When thyroid antibodies interfere in this process in excess or fewer amounts, it leads to chronic conditions and disorders. Hypothyroidism causes weight gain, fatigue, goitre (enlarged thyroid glands), dry skin, hair loss, low immunity and constipation. Hyperthyroidism can cause symptoms such as rapid heart rate, sweating, anxiety, fatigue, tremors, weight loss, sleep disorders and protrusion of eyes.

 

What are thyroid antibodies

The immune system fights the bacteria and viruses attacking the body with substances called antibodies produced by blood cells called lymphocytes. Thyroid autoantibodies develop when the body mistakenly recognises components of the thyroid as invaders and lead to inflammation of the thyroid causing it to stop production of thyroid hormone.

In hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, lymphocytes make antibodies against the thyroid which damage or stimulate the gland resulting in Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Anti thyroid perioxidase antibodies are significantly involved in thyroid dysfunction and the development of hypothyroidism.

Approximately 1% of the population suffers from thyroid disease, and as it presents itself with several symptoms, it needs to be diagnosed and constantly monitored to optimise treatment. Thyroid function tests are endocrine tests that detect the presence and measure the quantity of specific thyroid antibodies in the blood.

 

What is an AtAb test and Why Get Tested

Thyroid antibodies (AtAb) attack the thyroid which causes changes in thyroid function. Thyroid antibody tests (AtAb Test) are conducted to help diagnose and monitor an autoimmune disease and distinguish it from other forms of thyroiditis. These tests also assist in scrutinizing the cause of goitre. It is also performed as a follow up of other thyroid test results (T3,4 or TSH) displaying an indication of thyroid dysfunctions.

 

When To Get Tested

You need to get tested

If you have thyroid symptoms like

• Enlarged thyroid gland

• Thyroid dysfunction indicate in other thyroid tests

Hyperthyroid and hypothyroid symptoms like

• Severe hair loss

• High/low cholesterol level

• Thinning of hair

• Dry skin

• Joint Pains

• Panic attacks

• Irregular menstrual cyclesConfusion

• Constipation

• Unexplained weight loss or gain

• Fatigue

Sample Required

The specimen type required is a serum ( blood sample). Venipuncture is the procedure for collection of a sample. Hypothyroidism blood test involves the collection of blood sample from a vein, usually from the arm.

 

Preparation

No fasting or special preparation is needed for this test.

 

Understanding Test results

Thyroid antibodies may be present in a variety of diseases in mild to moderate levels. Women tend to have a higher prevalence of thyroid antibodies which increases with age. If a patient has no thyroid dysfunction but does have the presence of thyroid antibodies, a doctor may monitor it over a period of time combining it with other thyroid function tests such as T3, T4 or TPH.

When do you need us?

If you experience any of the above symptoms, then you must seek medical consultation to rule out the presence of thyroid antibodies or thyroid dysfunction. Your doctor will ask you to perform the regular thyroid tests. Even if a patient is healthy, they may test positive for one or more thyroid antibodies. You would need a lab which conducts the test in the best possible condition and gives an honest revelation of the results for your doctor to advise the right line of treatment. This is where we can offer the best services in a state of the art lab facility to conduct tests and also give results without any delay.

 

How we can help

Our set of trained lab assistants will help you collect your blood sample without much difficulty. We offer services at your doorstep, and you need not take the difficulty of travelling to our lab to give your blood sample. Booking a test with us is a simple three-part process. Call us or book online at a slot that is convenient for you. Our lab assistant will visit you at home and collect your sample at your doorstep. Reports are mostly generated within 24 hours and sent to you via email. The thyroid test cost is also priced affordably.

Our doctors also offer thyroid treatment on diagnosis. Hypothyroidism treatment is one of the specialities of our endocrinologists. There is a definite thyroid cure which involves regular medication and monitoring by a qualified doctor, and we can assist you in this regard.

Summary

Thyroid disorders are very common today, and it is not a clinical condition that cannot be treated. Thyroid cure has been ascertained after medical research and doctors have a well chalked out treatment plan for patients to undergo treatment. Doctors are also encouraging patients to make lifestyle changes to prevent or eliminate thyroid antibodies.

 

Understanding results of Thyroid Autoantibodies (AtAb)

Reference RangeInterpretation
AMAupto 34 Iu/ml
ATGupto 115 Iu/ml

‘*A Reference range is a set of values which helps the healthcare professional to interpret a medical test. It may vary with age, gender, and other factors. Reference ranges may also vary between labs, in value & units depending on instruments used and method of establishment of reference ranges’

References

  1. https://labtestsonline.org/tests/thyroid-antibodies
  2. https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=167&contentid=thyroid_antibody
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5925209/