nursing care for bone marrow cancer

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bone marrow cancer definition

Content is medically reviewed by:

Dr. Udaya Kumar Maiya (MBBS, MD, DNB(RT), DCCF (Paris), Medical Director, Portea.

It is a type of cancer that builds whenever a tumor or any abnormal mass is formed in the spongy tissue of the bone. The tumor can grow aggressively and can spread to other parts of the body. By nature, it is malignant, which can pose some serious damage to the overall bodily functioning. Till date, there are no definite bone marrow cancer causes, although certain things can increase the risk of developing this type of cancer.

types of bone marrow cancer

There are different types of bone marrow cancers out of which the Primary Bone Cancer is considered as the most serious one. They form on an immediate basis in the bones and covers up the tissues such as cartilage.

Cancer can spread or even metastasize from every other part of the body to your bones. Such a thing is called the secondary bone cancer. The secondary bone cancer is more common.

Bone Marrow Cancer Types

Multiple Myeloma (MM)

This type of cancer directly affects the plasma cell, which is a type of white blood cells. Functionally, the white blood cells are responsible for fighting infections. But when an individual suffers from Myeloma (MM), the body instead of defending, starts killing its own healthy cells.

Among different bone marrow cancer, Multiple Myeloma has the best prognosis. With effective bone marrow cancer care, MM can be cured to a great extent.

Osteosarcoma (Osteogenic)

Osteosarcoma, also known as Osteogenic, affects small children and adolescents. But, in rare cases, it can even occur in adults. It spreads from the tips of the longer bones right to the legs and arms. In addition, it can even start in the hips, shoulders and other boney regions.


Generally, Chondrosarcoma happens in the thigh areas, pelvis and shoulders of different adults. It has its formation in the subchondral tissue which is often said as the toughest tissue between the bones. Chondrosarcoma is the second most severe type of cancer which involves the bones.

Ewing’s Sarcoma

The Ewing’s sarcoma is the rarest of all bone marrow cancer. For formation, it starts building up in the softer tissues or in the bones of young adults and children. Usually, the long bones of the body are affected such as the legs, arms, pelvis etc.

bone marrow cancer symptoms

As the bone marrow cancer has different types, its symptoms will differ from individual to individual. Different bone marrow cancer symptoms are as follows:

Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma (MM) includes:

  • Fatigue
  • Increase in Infections
  • Fractures and Bone Pain
  • Changing the Urination Frequency
  • Thirst
  • Nausea and Vomiting
  • Weight Loss
  • Confusion

Symptoms of Leukemia Includes:

  • Shortness of Breath
  • Night Sweats
  • Fever
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes
  • Feeling Weak
  • Pale Complexion
  • Frequent Bruising
  • Body Aches
  • Regular Bleeding from smaller wounds

The symptoms of lymphoma are a lot more similar to leukemia. But, they also include:

  • A persistent Cough
  • Night Sweats
  • Pain in the Lymph Node after consuming alcohol
  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Skin lumps and rashes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling bloated and full every other time

In case if you are experiencing some of the bone marrow cancer symptoms, it is advisable to consult a doctor at the earliest.

bone marrow cancer stages

With the help of staging, doctors can perfectly track your disease and give you the necessary treatments. Sooner the bone marrow cancer diagnosis is started; greater is the chance of its effectiveness.

Most of the doctors often categorize the bone marrow cancer into four stages:

Smoldering Stage

Myeloma, which is not showing active symptoms, is known as the “Smoldering Stage”. It means that the myeloma cells are present in your body but are not causing any damage to the body. The smoldering stage doesn’t come under any bone marrow cancer stages and is considered pre-cancerous.

  • Stage 1: In this stage, the numbers of myeloma cells are less in your blood as well as urine. The Bone X-rays also look normal and depicts only the affected area.
  • Stage 2 : In this stage, the myeloma cells are present at a moderate level. Hemoglobin levels are much lower than the usual. The amount of monoclonal immunoglobulin can increase and the blood calcium levels can become higher.
  • Stage 3: In the final stage of multiple myeloma, a high percentage of myeloma cells will be seen during examination of the body. The hemoglobin levels also fall below 8.5 grams per deciliter & calcium blood levels go much higher.

bone marrow cancer treatment

Before the actual treatment, different bone marrow tests are performed. Among these, the bone marrow cancer screening test is the most essential one.  Normally, the bone marrow cancer treatment depends on the following things:

  • Stage of Cancer
  • Your Age
  • Overall Health
  • Size and the Location of Tumor

bone marrow cancer treatment

The different treatment methods used for treating bone marrow cancer includes:

  • Pain Medications for getting relief from discomfort and inflammation
  • Chemotherapy drugs for treating multiple myeloma
  • Using Cytotoxic Drugs to stop the cancer cell growth
  • Radiation Surgery


At times surgical means are opted for removing tumors which are affecting the tissues. With surgery, doctors replace or cut out the damaged bones which stop the spread of cancers. Once cancer is confirmed by bone marrow cancer diagnostic test, for the prognosis, one can opt for bone marrow cancer home treatment to get the best bone marrow cancer care.

how can we help?

If you are looking for bone marrow cancer care at home, Portea can help you out. We offer the best treatments for bone marrow cancer which can be done straight at your home. With us, you can get the best bone marrow cancer diagnostic test as well as its treatment. With Portea, you can find the best bone marrow treatment at home without any issue.

We know that bone cancer is dangerous but with our doctors at your rescue, things will get better. Also, experienced nurses for bone marrow cancer are available. So, move ahead, pair with us for the best treatments for bone marrow cancer. Be assured of the best bone marrow cancer treatment with Portea.

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