What is ultrasound sonography? An ultrasound / SONOGRAPHY is a procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to scan the internal organs of the body woman’s abdomen and pelvic cavity, the reproductive system and the fetus of a pregnant woman creating a picture (sonogram) of the baby and placenta. Although the terms ultrasound and sonogram are technically different, they are used interchangeably and reference the same exam. They can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, including the abdomen, the fetus of pregnant women as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.
The USG test does require a bit of preparation before going for the test. If a trans-abdominal ultrasound sonography test is being done then it is important that the urinary bladder is full of urine. For this purpose, it would be recommended that you drink roughly about 8 glasses of water or any other clear fluid and not have passed urine for at least an hour before the test. By having the urinary bladder full, it is ensured that the organs in the abdominal and pelvic cavity show up clearly in the ultrasound sonography picture. The urine can be immediately passed after the test procedure is completed. In case of transvaginal ultrasonography, the test is done with an empty urinary bladder. The urine is supposed to be passed out before the test begins. It is important that comfortable and loose clothing is worn before the examination such as a gown so that the test can be done easily and comfortably. Sometimes fat-free meals are advised to be eaten before the test.
Ultrasound may help to evaluate symptoms such as:
• Pelvic pain
• Abnormal bleeding
• Other menstrual problems
Wear loose-fitting clothing
Ensure that the bladder is full
It is important to drink a lot of water at least one hour before the exam and finishing at least 45 minutes before the test since the body must absorb the water.
Diagnostic procedure: An odourless, colourless gel is applied to the skin above the body structure(s) to be studied
A small device called a transducer/probe is placed against the patient's skin near the body area to be imaged
The transducer is moved around to image the various organs under study which appear on a monitor and the most diagnostically useful images are saved and interpreted
An abdominal ultrasound test is usually done to check the conditions of the major organs in the human body's abdominal cavity. The ultrasound majorly helps in checking properly the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and gallbladder. An ultrasound test is not only done in women but also men, especially men of the age of above 65 who have or have had a habit of smoking. In such men, the ultrasound helps in checking for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. If you have symptoms such as enlarged organ, hernia, pancreatitis, gallstone, kidney blockage, liver cancer, appendicitis, abnormal uterine structure, abnormal foetus structure or an internal tumour an ultrasound is recommended by the doctor. The ultrasound images aid in diagnosing and treating medical conditions. It may also be used to:
Identify reasons for abdominal pain
Find problems and detect damage, disease or a tumour in an organ Check the size, shape, and position of an organ
The 3D ultrasound is an advanced ultrasound technology that formats the sound wave data into 3D images. The Four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound is a 3D ultrasound in motion. Hence it is also called as Real-time live 3D.
In females, the USG sonography will help the doctor analyse any problem with the uterus/ovaries, check for cancers in the abdominal organs, check for IUD, check for fertility issues, check the baby growth during pregnancy, check for any inflammation in the pelvic region, check for stones in the kidney or find out about an ectopic pregnancy.
In males, a pelvic ultrasound is used to identify kidney stones and also be able to find any an illuminated in the bladder. The USG test cost is a little high compared to a blood test. You can find out about the USG test price in your area by searching online for a “USG test near me”. The ultrasound sonography test price is lesser at a few government-run laboratories.
The two most common types of ultrasounds performed are:
Abdominal ultrasound: It provides an image of the organs and other structures in the upper abdomen. It may be performed to evaluate:
• Abdominal aorta and other blood vessels of the abdomen
Pelvic Ultrasound: A pelvic ultrasound may be done to evaluate the following:
For men and women
• Kidney stones
• Urinary bladder
• Prostate gland
For Women -
• To monitor the health and development of the fetus during pregnancy Uterus
• Ovaries Fallopian tubes
Since an ultrasound is to check on the various abdominal and pelvic organs or to check the fetal development, based on the images that are obtained in the ultrasound the doctor explains in detail the test results. He will usually check for organ swelling, stones or any appearance abnormality in the child. If there is a swelling detected in the organs then appropriate further tests are recommended. If there is a foetal abnormality and appropriate procedure or USG treatment may be prescribed by the doctor to the mother.
Before the test is begun, you are advised to change into a comfortable hospital gown. Any metal or jewellery that affects the test is removed from the body. You will be made to lie on a table exposing your abdomen. There is a lubricating jelly applied on the belly by the lab technician. Then an ultrasound instrument called the transducer is used to transmit ultrasound waves of high frequency into the body. If you are experiencing pain, there may be discomfort during this procedure. If the pain is severe than a technician should be notified immediately. Pictures appear on the monitor and are captured by the lab technician. After the procedure is completed, the technician cleans the lubricant on the abdomen. This procedure is of less than 30 minutes. The USG test report is given usually within 24 hours to the patient.
An ultrasound has no risk. There are no radiations used in an ultrasound and hence the risk is less. This is also the reason why these scans are used for checking foetal growth in pregnant women. So far there is no evidence to prove that ultrasound imaging can be harmful to a foetus but long-term risks cannot be ruled out by the doctors.
There are a few factors that may affect the results of the tests such as severe obesity, the unfilled bladder in some cases, filled bladder in some cases, the presence of food in the stomach, leftover barium in the stomach or the gastrointestinal tract from a previous procedure or even excess gas in the intestine.
Along with the ultrasound, other tests may be recommended by the doctor to check the health of pelvic organs. These tests may be a hysteroscopy – where a lighted thin device is inserted into the vagina to check for any uterine issues or a laproscopy wherein an illuminated thin tube is sent through the abdominal wall to check the organs. our doctor might recommend other tests to check the health of your pelvis